Funding for this research was provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (T32HL007034)
Canada Research Chair Program at the University of British Columbia
Annenberg Physician Training Program in Addiction Medicine
Accepted: 2 February 2021
First Online: 12 February 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All research activities were approved by Stanford’s Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained from all respondents.
: Not applicable.
: JPP has provided consultation to pharmaceutical and technology companies that make medications and other treatments for quitting tobacco smoking and has served as an expert witness in lawsuits against the tobacco companies. EF is on the Stanford Prevention Research Center’s WELL Advisory Board. The other authors declare they have no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work.