Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health, University of California, San Francisco-Gladstone Institute of Virology & Immunology Center for AIDS Research (P30-AI027763)
AIDS Research Institute Strategic Support, the Iranian Ministry of Health
National Institute for Medical Research Development (973382)
Accepted: 23 March 2021
First Online: 1 April 2021
: All participants verbally consented to participate in this study, including the interview, HIV and HCV testing, storage of specimens, use of photos, and contact information. PWID who were diagnosed with HIV or HCV at baseline or during follow-up visits were referred to other study or programs for treatment services. The ethical committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences approved the study protocol (IRB# IR.KMU.REC.1396.2422), and University of California San Francisco (IRB # 16-18626) approved the study protocol.
: Participants have consented for publication.
: The authors have confirmed they have no potential competing interests to declare.