Received: 11 February 2020
Accepted: 8 July 2020
First Online: 20 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval was not required as this is a review of already published primary studies.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.TBM is funded by the Rhodes Trust for his Doctoral studies at the University of Oxford. CH has received expenses and fees for his media work (including payments from BBC Radio 4 Inside Health). He has received expenses from the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and holds grant funding from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the NIHR School of Primary Care Research, The NIHR Biomedical Research Centre Oxford and the WHO. He has received financial remuneration from an asbestos case and to date has given legal advice on mesh cases. He has also received income from the publication of a series of toolkit books published by Blackwells. On occasion, he receives expenses for teaching Evidence-Based Medicine and is also paid for his General Practitioner work in the National Health Service (NHS) out of hours (contract with Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust). He is the Director of Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, which jointly runs the Evidence Live Conference with the British Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Over Diagnosis Conference with international partners, based on a non-profit making model. He is the Editor in Chief of BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine and is an NIHR Senior Investigator. DN has received funding from the NHS National Institute for Health Research. He has also had funding from the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) to conduct independent research. He is also a voluntary (unpaid) member of the RCGP-Physical Activity and Lifestyle clinical priority steering committee. He has also received expenses and fees for his media work. On occasion, he receives expenses for teaching Evidence-Based Medicine. GCR is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) School for Primary Care (SCPR), the Naji Foundation and the Rotary Foundation to study for a Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford. GCR is the Editorial Registrar of BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine and an Ambassador for the Centre for Open Science. AE, DK and VW declare no conflicts of interest.