Received: 4 June 2020
Accepted: 14 July 2020
First Online: 31 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The present study was approved by the IRB of Northwestern University as a retrospective review using a pre-existing national dataset (IRB ID: STU00210936). Because patients were not directly contacted in this study, consent was not obtained.
: No individual patients were contacted as part of this study. Therefore, patient consent was not directly obtained. ACS NSQIP has provided consent for publication of this manuscript using their data.
: ARK receives royalties from Acumed and Depuy/Synthes and serves as a consultant for Arthrex. MAP and AES have no competing interests to declare.