Funding for this research was provided by:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 82003558)
Shanghai Science and Technology Development Funds (22QA1411400)
Received: 18 June 2022
Accepted: 10 December 2022
First Online: 10 January 2023
: All data in this article comes from Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database which was collected and cleaned by Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), the largest publicly available all-payer database. According the guidelines of the HCUP, this study does not require Ethical approval or any consent to participate causing that all data from the NIS were only de-identified patient claims data.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.