Funding for this research was provided by:
National Cancer Institute (5U54CA19016304)
Received: 7 October 2020
Accepted: 4 February 2021
First Online: 19 February 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Rwanda National Ethics Committee as well as the Albert Einstein College of Medicine Institutional Review Board and all study participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study.
: Not applicable.
: The authors have no competing interests. However, Dr. Castle has received HPV tests and assays at a reduced or no cost from Roche, Becton Dickinson, Cepheid, and Arbor Vita Corporation. Cepheid provided Xpert HPV tests at reduced cost and loaned a GeneXpert system for this study.The opinions expressed by the authors are their own and this material should not be interpreted as representing the official viewpoint of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the National Institutes of Health or the National Cancer Institute.