Funding for this research was provided by:
Elrha’s Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF),
Received: 31 March 2022
Accepted: 31 October 2022
First Online: 16 December 2022
: This study received ethics approval from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (ID: 22960), the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ID: PR-21024), the Gambella Health Bureau, Ethiopia (ID: ref.OGB/pm/0276/21) and at the Higher Institute of Medical Techniques Bukavu, DRC (ID: ISTM-BKV/CRPS/CIE/ML/006/2021).
: All humanitarians and crisis-affected populations involved in this research were informed about the purpose of the study in the local language, had the opportunity to ask questions and then provided written consent.
: AJ, FM and BCN have no competing interests to declare. AB and MF were involved supporting the national Oxfam offices to implement the OHS and MMH work in the three countries. MM, EH, MZ, PN, and JW were involved in the implementation of the interventions in the three study sites. SW has been involved in the codesign other handwashing stations and hygiene promotion approaches for humanitarian crises.