Received: 20 April 2021
Accepted: 12 January 2022
First Online: 25 January 2022
: Ethics approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University (COA No. IRB-NS 2015/282.3004) and the ethical review board committees of the psychiatric hospital. As this study obtained data from the hospital incident reports for the risk management system and patients’ medical records, consent to participate permission to obtain data was obtained from the director of the psychiatric hospital. The waived informed consent was approved by the Institutional Review Board Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University because the psychiatric inpatients have been discharged from the hospital for more than 1 year and therefore do not have a contact address. The research conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki, the Belmont Report, CIOMS Guidelines.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.