Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 17 April 2020
Accepted: 27 July 2020
First Online: 31 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the New England Institutional Review Board (Work Order Number 1–9472-1). The current study was designed as an analysis based on claims data from a large insured population in the US. There was no active enrollment or active follow-up of study subjects, and no data was collected directly from individuals. The HIPAA Privacy Rule permits PHI in a limited data set to be used or disclosed for research, without individual authorization, if certain criteria are met (further described 45 CFR Part 160 and Subparts A and E of Part 164). Thus informed consent was not required.
: Not applicable, as all results presented in this manuscript were aggregated.
: DB, DT, JD, AJA, and SL are employees of HealthCore, Inc. (a subsidiary of Anthem Inc.), which received funding from Pfizer Inc. and Merck Healthcare KGaA (Darmstadt, Germany) for this study. FXL and PV are employees of Merck Healthcare KGaA (Darmstadt, Germany) and LR and SD are employees of Pfizer Inc. RY was an employee of HealthCore, Inc. at the time of this study, and is a current employee of Anthem Inc.