Funding for this research was provided by:
U.K. Department of Health Policy Research Programme (PR-ST-1014-00011)
Received: 22 May 2020
Accepted: 13 December 2020
First Online: 6 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical and research governance considerations: Permission was granted by the Confidentiality Advisory Group (CAG) for the use of non-anonymised voice files of calls from the EMS (15/CAG/0107). It was agreed by the CAG that the data could be used without gaining individual consents. Favourable ethical opinion was also gained from the National Research Ethics Committee North West (15/NW/0544). Data storage and handling were conducted according to the standard operating procedures of the Lancashire Clinical Trials Unit.
: Not applicable.
: TQ reports research funding from NIHR for cardiac arrest research.CW, VB and CM are part funded by the National Institute for Health Research Applied Research Collaboration North West Coast (NIHR ARC NWC).