Received: 27 October 2022
Accepted: 11 January 2023
First Online: 17 January 2023
: The Institutional Review Board of the University of Michigan approved this study (HUM00148126). We obtained informed consent from each patient’s legal representative.
: Not applicable.
: EM was supported by Grant Number T32 HL 007749 (Multidisciplinary Training Program in Lung Disease) from the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. AW reports speaking fees from Drager and author fees from Jones and Bartlett Learning, unrelated to this work. WWL reports personal fees from Konica Minolta and Continuing Education Alliance. PC is a consultant for Breas Medical US and performs Medicolegal Expert witness work. HP reported receiving grants from the US Department of Veterans Affairs outside the submitted work, serving on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Panel, and serving as physician lead for a Michigan statewide sepsis collaborative. RH serves on the advisory board for Merck, Boehringer Ingelheim. Consultant for LungPacer and NOTA-Laboratories has textbook royalties from Springer Website and UpToDate. Grants: CHEST Foundation, NHLBI PETAL Network Medicolegal Expert witness work. Dräger loaned equipment (PulmoVista® 500) to RH for research purposes; no monetary funds were provided.