Funding for this research was provided by:
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation
Cancer Care Ontario
Received: 21 January 2021
Accepted: 25 May 2021
First Online: 12 July 2021
: This study was reviewed and approved by University Health Network’s Research Ethics Board and Mount Sinai Hospital’s Research Ethics Board. All participants consented to participate in this study prior to collection of any study data.
: All study participants consented to publication of deidentified study data in a publicly available print and internet publications.
: RSD, KOP, CG, NTA, WL, AE, and SD are co-inventors on IP licensed to MolecuLight Inc. (Toronto, Canada) and photonamic GmbH & Co. KG (Pinneberg, Germany) commercializing this technology. This study was a University Health Network (UHN) investigator-sponsored RCT (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01837225) prior to IP licensing. RSD is the Founder, Chief Scientific Officer, Board member, and Shareholder of MolecuLight Inc. MolecuLight Inc. did not provide funding or other support, nor were any company staff involved directly or indirectly with this study. RSD conceived of the study and reviewed and edited the final manuscript. He did not recruit nor consent patients, nor collect, nor analyze data resulting from the study. 5-ALA HCl was provided by photonamic GmbH and Co. KG (Pinneberg, Germany) governed by a Drug Transfer Agreement between photonamic and UHN. RSD holds interest in photonamic GmbH & Co. KG’s subsidiary company (SBI ALApharma Canada Inc., Toronto, Canada) developing this technology for commercialization. KOP is employed by SBI ALApharma Canada Inc., but was solely employed by UHN during study data collection, data analysis and manuscript preparation. SBI ALApharma Canada Inc. was not involved directly or indirectly in this study. RSD is governed by a UHN Conflict of Interest Management Plan. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.