Funding for this research was provided by:
R&D Program of China (2018YFC2000100,2017YFC1001302)
R&D Program of China (2016YFC1000604)
CAS Strategic Priority Research Program (XDB32060000)
National Natural Science Foundation of China (31871502, 31522037)
Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2018SHZDZX05)
Shanghai City Committee of science and technology project (18411953700, 18JC1410100)
Shanghai Key Laboratory for Assisted Reproduction and Reproductive Genetic (17DZ2271100)
Received: 18 January 2019
Accepted: 25 April 2019
First Online: 22 May 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the ART Ethics Committee of Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (approval reference number: 2017112406 for tri-pronuclear zygotes and immature oocytes). The review of research project application was conducted by independent experts in the ART Ethics Committee. Our study has strictly followed the guidelines on human stem cells and embryo research in China (in accordance with 2016 ISSCR guidelines for stem cell Research and Clinical Applications of Stem Cells) and been ethically inspected. This study used abnormally fertilized tri-pronuclear (3PN) human zygotes, and immature oocytes, routinely discarded during IVF treatments, were donated for this study by consented IVF patients at Ren Ji Hospital. Normal sperm and sperm with mutation in MUT gene were donated by volunteer donors after obtaining formal consent. All donations of sperm or embryos were voluntary without any financial inducement. Scientific publications for this study were formally allowed by all donors under consent statements. The consent forms related to this study were provided for the inspection without revealing donor identities during journal peer-review process by following confidential regulation rules in the Ren Ji Hospital. All experimental methods in the study abided by the Helsinki Declaration.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.