Funding for this research was provided by:
National Science Foundation (BCS-1540432, BCS-1317217)
Wenner-Gren Foundation (9299)
National Institutes of Health (5T32AI007532-18, 1R01DK104339-01, 1R01GM113657-01), R01-HL113252, R61-HL137063, U01-HL098957, R01-HL087115, K24-HL115354)
University of Pennsylvania
The Louis and Clark Fund
Penn Center for AIDS Research (P30-AI045008)
PennCHoP Microbiome Program
Received: 19 September 2019
Accepted: 15 April 2020
First Online: 25 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Written, informed consent was obtained from all study participants, and research/ethics approval was obtained from the following institutions prior to the start of sample collection: Institutional Review Board of the University of Pennsylvania (IRB # 807981), the Cameroonian National Ethics Committee and the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Health. All subjects provided written informed consent for the collection and analysis of samples. All samples were coded with an alphanumeric identifier to protect participant confidentiality.All experimental methods were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration.
: All participants provided consent for publication of study results of the collected biomaterials paired with anonymized metadata information.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.