Funding for this research was provided by:
American Society of Mammalogists
Southwestern Association of Naturalists
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD35166)
Received: 18 November 2021
Accepted: 29 June 2022
First Online: 11 July 2022
: For immunochemical studies, we used spermatozoa from five lab animal species (mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit, housed and handled in an AALAC accredited facility), two farm animal species (horse and pig, housed and handled per USDA regulations), as well as dog and human. We obtained epididymal spermatozoa from the five lab animal species per approved IACUC protocol, and from discarded epididymides of a sexually mature dog neutered in the course of standard veterinary care. And we obtained ejaculated spermatozoa from human semen collected by volunteer donors per IRB-approved protocol (number 01005), and from pig and horse semen collected in the course of routine husbandry for the species, which on Texas Tech University farms are propagated by artificial insemination.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.