Funding for this research was provided by:
Guy's and St Thomas' Charity (King's Improvement Science)
National Institute for Health Research (Senior Investigator Award, GHRU 16/136/54, Applied Research Collaboration (ARC) South London at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust)
South African Medical Research Council
South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (King's Improvement Science)
Wellcome Trust (DEL-1501, MR/M014290/1; MR/M011464/1)
Department for International Development, UK Government (MR/M014290/1; MR/M011464/1)
Economic and Social Research Council (MR/M014290/1; MR/M011464/1, ASPIRES research programme in LMICs (Antibiotic use across Surgical Pathways – Investigating, Redesigning and Evaluating Systems))
Maudsley Charity (King's Improvement Science)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1179252)
Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (King's Improvement Science)
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London (Clinician Investigator Scholarship)
Received: 28 February 2020
Accepted: 19 April 2020
First Online: 1 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval has been provided by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia (protocol number: 032/19/CDT) and the Psychiatry, Nursing & Midwifery subcommittee of King’s College London’s College Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference: HR-18/19–9230); see Supplementary file InternalRef removed. Any protocol amendments will be communicated with both boards and updated on the pan-African clinical trials registry. Informed consent will be obtained from all study participants.
: Not applicable.
: NS is the director of London Safety and Training Solutions, which provides advisory and training services in safety and quality improvement to hospitals and health care organisations globally on a consultancy basis. The remaining authors declare that they have no competing interests.