Funding for this research was provided by:
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID)
Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN/G4 GROUP-02, DI/EC/MAM/N°479/14)
Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (IPM/IPal-VivaxDuffy Internal Grant, 007/IPM/DIR/PR/16)
Received: 4 December 2019
Accepted: 3 August 2020
First Online: 26 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study followed ethical principles according to the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the Malagasy Ethical Committee of the Ministry of Health (agreements No. 122-MSANP/CE–2015 and No. 141-MSANP/CE–2014). Prior to carrying out study procedures, individual written informed consent was obtained from all study participants, or their parents or legal guardians in the case of minors.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.