Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (U54DE023798)
Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America
Helen Hay Whitney Foundation
Charles A. King Trust
Klarman Family Foundation
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R01DK92405, P30DK43351)
National Science Foundation (MCB-1453942)
Received: 23 June 2017
Accepted: 6 November 2017
First Online: 28 November 2017
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The design of the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Massachusetts General Hospital (protocol number 2004P001067). Written informed consent was obtained for participation in the study, and the study design complies with the Declaration of Helsinki.
: Not applicable.
: DG is employed by the Janssen Human Microbiome Institute. CH is on the Scientific Advisory Board for Seres Therapeutics. The remaining authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.