Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministero della Salute (RC 2017)
European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (602901 - MErCurRIC)
AIRC IG program (18532, 20697, 21407, 21923)
AIRC Special Program 5 per mille metastases Project (21091)
Fondazione Piemontese per la Ricerca sul Cancro-ONLUS, 5 × 1,000 Ministero della Salute (2011,2014,2015)
Fondo per la Ricerca Locale (ex 60%), Università di Torino (D42F17000430007)
European Community’s H2020 (635342-2 MoTriColor))
Received: 17 January 2019
Accepted: 13 June 2019
First Online: 28 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All animal procedures were approved by the Ethical Commission of Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS, of the University of Turin and by the Italian Ministry of Health. They were performed in accordance with institutional guidelines and international law and policies. The number of mice included in the experiments, the inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the observed tumor size limits were based on institutional guidelines. Guidelines limited us to using 6–8-week-old female and male NOD–SCID mice. Mice were obtained from Charles River Tumor samples, and matched normal samples were obtained from patients treated by liver metastasectomy at the Candiolo Cancer Institute (Candiolo, Torino, Italy), Mauriziano Umberto I Hospital (Torino) and San Giovanni Battista Hospital (Torino). All patients provided informed consent, samples were procured, and the study was conducted under the approval of the Review Boards of the Institutions (Ethics protocol No. 001-IRCC-00IIS-10, project “PROFILING”).
: Not applicable.
: G. Germano has an ownership interest in Neophore. A. Bardelli has ownership interest in Phoremost and Neophore and is a consultant/advisory board member for Phoremost and Neophore. The remaining authors declare that they have no competing interests.