Funding for this research was provided by:
Wellcome Trust (107212/A/15/Z)
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation United States of America (1-SRA-2019-657-A-N, 4-SRA-2017-473-A-A, 4-2007-1003)
Received: 22 November 2019
Accepted: 12 June 2020
First Online: 24 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All samples and information were collected with written and signed informed consent. The study conformed to the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the local Peterborough and Fenland research ethics committee (05/Q0106/20). The D-GAP study was approved by the Royal Free Hospital & Medical School research ethics committee; REC (08/H0720/25). Small bowel biopsies were collected as part of a routine gastroduodenoscopy. Consent for research was obtained via the Oxford GI Illnesses Biobank (REC 16/YH/0247). Tregs were sorted and expanded from PBMCs obtained via locally recruited volunteers and NHS Blood and Transplant with full informed consent for research purposes under CAMSAFE (REC-11/33/0007).
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.