Received: 15 July 2020
Accepted: 18 December 2020
First Online: 13 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The studies were conducted under the following ethics approvals:The 23/12.08.2019 approval of the Ethics Committee of Sotiria Athens General Hospital and the 26.02.2019 approval of the Ethics Committee of ATTIKON University General Hospital. Written informed consent was provided by patients or by first-degree relatives in case of patients unable to consent. Study samples from Nijmegen, the Netherlands, were obtained in accordance with the applicable rules concerning the review of research ethics committees and informed consent. All patients or legal representatives were informed about the study details and could decline to participate. The Bonn study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University Hospital Bonn (073/19 and 134/20). After providing written informed consent, 16 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. In-patients who were not able to consent at the time of study enrollment provided consent after recovery. Approval to undertake the Rhineland Study was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Bonn, Medical Faculty. The study is carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standards (ICH-GCP). The research conformed to the principles of the Helsinki Declaration.
: Not applicable.
: EJG-B has received honoraria (paid to the University of Athens) from AbbVie USA, Abbott CH, Angelini Italy, Biotest Germany, InflaRx GmbH, MSD Greece, and XBiotech Inc. He has received independent educational grants from AbbVie, Abbott, Astellas Pharma, AxisShield, bioMérieux Inc., InflaRx GmbH, and XBiotech Inc.The remaining authors declare that they have no competing interests.