Funding for this research was provided by:
Health and Medical Research Fund (05161386)
Research Grants Council Theme-based Research Scheme (T12-402/13N)
Focused Innovation Scheme, Vice-Chancellor One-off Discretionary Fund
Chinese University of Hong Kong-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Research Fund
Natural Science Foundation of China – National Health and Medical Science Council, Australia Joint Research Scheme (81561128017)
the Postdoctoral Fellowship Scheme of the Chinese University of Hong Kong
the Research Grants Council Research Impact Fund (R4012-18)
Hong Kong Foundation for Research and Development in Diabetes, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Received: 17 June 2020
Accepted: 12 January 2021
First Online: 19 February 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Parents or legal guardians of children and adolescents, and all adult participants gave written informed consent for DNA collection and data analysis for research purposes at the time of assessment. This study conformed to the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the recruitment and use of all the cohorts listed, use of the follow-up data including use of hospital admission data and mortality data. The collection of genetic information for genetic studies and clinical information, as well as the prospective follow-up for death and clinical outcomes, has also been approved by the IRB. The committee’s reference numbers for each individual cohort are listed below:1) Children and adult women from HAPO follow-up study: 2008.519, 2008.520, 2013.042, 2015.4732) Adolescents: 2002.182, 2017.6813) Healthy adults and adults from the general populations: 2002.183-T, 2009.4214) T2D patients in HKDR study: 2002.183-T, 2004.418, 2013.1875) T2D patients in HKDB phase 1 and 2 studies: 2013–304
: Not applicable.
: J.C.N.C reported receiving grants and/or honoraria for consultancy or giving lectures from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi-Sankyo, Eli-Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, and Sanofi. A.P.S.K reported receiving research grants and/or honoraria from Abbott, Astra Zeneca, Eli-Lilly, Merck Serono, Nestle, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi. R.C.W.M reported having received research grants for clinical trials from AstraZeneca, Bayer, MSD, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Tricida Inc. and honoraria for consultancy or lectures from AstraZeneca, and Boehringer Ingelheim. JCNC, WYS, RCWM and CKPL are founding members of GemVCare, a technology start-up initiated with support from the Hong Kong Government Innovation and Technology Commission and its Technology Start-up Support Scheme for Universities (TSSSU). The remaining authors declare that they have no competing interests.