Funding for this research was provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01-HL105704)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R33-AI129455)
Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Career Award for Medical Scientists)
National Cancer Institute (K08-CA230156)
Received: 18 July 2020
Accepted: 20 May 2021
First Online: 1 June 2021
: Archival material at UCSF was retrospectively analyzed under no-patient-contact protocols approved by the UCSF Institutional Review Board (#15-15823, #10-01116, #18-25287). A written consent given prior to the procedure used to obtain the sample covered the use of residual samples for research. Samples were originally collected for routine clinical use and not discarded. Similarly, samples at Stanford for the verification cohort were also residual material enrolled under a no-patient-contact protocol approved by the Stanford Institutional Review Board (#58461) and with a written consent prior to the procedure. All research has been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
: Not applicable.
: ET was employed by DNAnexus, Inc. during the duration of the study and by Karius, Inc. prior to publication. The remaining authors declare that they have no competing interests.