Received: 22 May 2020
Accepted: 24 August 2020
First Online: 10 September 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The institutional review board at each of the sites approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all participants.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. James R. Hébert owns a controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC, a company that has licensed the right to his invention of the dietary inflammatory index from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smartphone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. Dr. Nitin Shivappa is an employee of Connecting Health Innovations LLC. The subject matter of this paper will not have any direct bearing on that work nor has that activity exerted any influence on this project. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.