Funding for this research was provided by:
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation
Received: 6 May 2019
Accepted: 18 June 2019
First Online: 24 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The institutional review board of Wayne State University approved this study (Protocol # 1204010830). The research office of Detroit Medical Center also approved the study. All participating residents provided their written informed consent prior to participation.
: Not applicable.
: The QWC survey instrument is owned and marketed by the Swedish company Springlife AB. Dr. B. Arnetz is the cofounder and co-owner of this company.