Funding for this research was provided by:
the Science Research Promotion Fund from the Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation for Private Schools of Japan.
Received: 9 January 2020
Accepted: 24 February 2020
First Online: 2 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Carcasses of Japanese monkeys were provided by Fukushima City. Monkeys were culled as a measure against crop damage with the permission of the governor of Fukushima Prefecture, according to the Fukushima Japanese Monkey Management Plan, which was established based on the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Management Law. Monkeys were captured using box traps and killed with a gun by licensed hunters at the request of Fukushima City. The capture and killing method was in accordance with the guidelines of the management plan stated above and should not be an ethical concern. The killing method was also in accordance with guidelines published by the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University [CitationRef removed, CitationRef removed]. Japanese monkeys inhabiting the research area are not listed as an endangered species on the Japanese Red List, as revised by the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 [CitationRef removed]. This study was performed without gathering new tissue but rather by using samples from our previous study [CitationRef removed–CitationRef removed].
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.