Funding for this research was provided by:
Fogarty International Center (D43 TW007886)
Received: 21 January 2020
Accepted: 10 March 2020
First Online: 18 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Informed consent (written) or by means of a thumbprint in case of illiterate participants was obtained in the primary study i.e. trial of multivitamins in HIV negative women in Tanzania (NCT00197548). They also consented for storage and future analyses of samples for ancillary studies. The ethical approval to perform secondary analysis of data was granted by the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NathREC) in Tanzania (NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol.IX/2649) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Human Subjects Committee in Boston, MA. The IRB approval number was 10433.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.