Funding for this research was provided by:
Mercy Health Contributory Research Funds
Received: 18 April 2020
Accepted: 21 July 2020
First Online: 31 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The institutional review boards at Michigan State Univeristy and Mercy Health determined the activities described in this manuscript did not involve research. Participation was anonymous and optional, and consent was not collected.
: Consent was not required for this study, as the Institutional Review Board at Michigan State University determined that the study was “not research”. However, participants were not required to participate in the study and could terminate their participation at any time.
: The QWC survey instrument is owned and marketed by the Swedish company Springlife AB. Bengt Arnetz is the co-founder and co-owner of this company. The company did not receive any compensation for the use of QWC questions in this study, nor was any data shared with the company. The remaining authors declare no conflicts of interest.