Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1116131)
Fogarty International Center (R25TW009340)
Received: 21 January 2020
Accepted: 1 September 2020
First Online: 7 September 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The approval for this study was obtained from the Tulane University Institutional Review Board and ERES Converge Institutional Review Board in Zambia. All women who provided written consent and attended an antenatal care visit for the first time at one of the participating clinics in Lusaka, Zambia were included in this study. Anonymity of the respondents was ensured throughout data analysis.
: All authors consent for publication.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.