Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-027961, INV-027961)
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (445877/2020-0, 445882/2020-4)
Received: 1 September 2022
Accepted: 5 April 2023
First Online: 25 April 2023
: We used data from open sources. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Institute for Applied Economic Research, and the Ministry of Health of Brazil are committed to respecting the ethical precepts and ensuring data privacy and security. The Brazilian legislation exempts the use of public and anonymized secondary data from ethical approval. Additionally, we anonymize the individual data from the More Doctors Program by aggregating them into ecological data and do not leave personal or sensible data available on the Synapse repository.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare no competing interests.