Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (R01DA037648)
Received: 13 March 2020
Accepted: 10 June 2020
First Online: 24 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All procedures and methods used in this study, including the NIH Certificate of Confidentiality and use of bilingual interview procedures, were approved by the University of Iowa Institutional Review Board (IRB 201409705). At the intake visit, a full and detailed description of the study was presented. Parents/guardians who were willing to participate in the study signed a written consent for themselves and their child, and the adolescent provided a written consent as well. In the case of subjects whose Spanish-speaking parents were not fluent in English, written consent was obtained in Spanish from the parents by a bilingual staff member. If a student in the study reached the age of 18 over the course of the study, the student was re-consented.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Philibert is the Chief Executive Officer of Behavioral Diagnostics and inventor on a number of granted and pending patent applications with respect to both alcohol and tobacco consumption related to the material discussed herein. The use of cg05575921 status to determine smoking status is protected by US Patents 8,637,652 and 9,273,358.