Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (P30 DK020595, P30 DK097512, UC4 DK104166, R01 DK105588, R01 DK093954, K24 HD01357, R01 DK060581)
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1 TR000005)
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation United States of America
Received: 4 May 2020
Accepted: 14 July 2020
First Online: 31 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All samples were collected with informed consent by the patients or their legal parents/guardians. Studies were approved by the Bayerische Landesaerztekammer, the Ludwig-Maximilians University, the University of Pittsburgh, and the Indiana University Institutional Review Boards.
: RGM, DLE, FF, and SAT have filed a patent application for assays to measure β cell dysfunction and death.