Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ((R01 AI121226))
UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and Wellcome ((102215/2/13/2))
Received: 17 August 2020
Accepted: 15 December 2020
First Online: 6 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics approvals for the IOW study were obtained from the Isle of Wight Local Research Ethics Committee (recruitment, 1, 2, and 4 years) and National Research Ethics Service, NRES Committee South Central—Southampton B (10 and 18 years) (06/Q1701/34). Written informed consent was obtained from parents to enrol newborns, and at subsequent follow-up, written informed consent was obtained from parents, participants, or both. At the University of Memphis, the internal review board first approved the project (FWA00006815) in 2015 (IRB ID: 3917). For ALSPAC, ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ALSPAC Ethics and Law Committee and the Local Research Ethics Committees. Consent for biological samples has been collected in accordance with the Human Tissue Act (2004). Informed consent for the use of data collected via questionnaires and clinics was obtained from participants following the recommendations of the ALSPAC Ethics and Law Committee at the time. Full details of ethical approvals are available at ExternalRef removed.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no potential competing interests.