Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (R01HL141292, R01HL133221, U01HL054457, R01HL119443, RC1HL100185)
Economic and Social Research Council (ES/S008349/1, ES/N000404/1, ES/M001660/1)
Wellcome (MR/N01104X/1 2018-2020, WT095219MA)
Medical Research Council (G0000934, G1001799, MC_UU_00019/1)
FP7 Ideas: European Research Council (FP7/2007–2013)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL090863, U01HL65520, 75N92019D00029, R01HL109284, R01HL109315, U01HL65521, 75N92019D00030, R01HL109301, 75N92019D00028, U01HL41652, U01HL41654, R01HL109319, cooperative agreements: U01HL41642, R01HL109282, 75N92019D00027)
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (P42ES010349, R01ES021367, P30ES009089, R01ES025216)
“la Caixa” Foundation (100010434)
Received: 15 October 2020
Accepted: 24 January 2021
First Online: 16 February 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for TwinsUK was granted by the National Research Ethics Service London-Westminster, the St Thomas’ Hospital Research Ethics Committee (EC04/015 and 07/H0802/84). Ethical approval for NSHD was granted by the Central Manchester Research Ethics Committee (07/H1008/168 and 07/H1008/245) and the Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (08/MRE00/12). Ethical approval for NCDS was granted by the London Central REC (14/LO/0097, 12/LO/2010 and 08/H0718/29) and by the South East MREC (01/1/44). Ethical approval for the BCS70 was granted by the London Central REC (14/LO/1371, 11/LO/1560) and the Southampton and South West Hampshire REC (08/H0504/144). All research participants have signed informed consent prior to taking part in any research activities. The Strong Heart Study is approved by Columbia University institutional research board (IRB), as well as other IRBs at multiple institutions, local tribal IRBs and Indian Health Service IRBs. Institutional review board approval was received for the GENOA study protocol through the University of Mississippi Medical Center and the University of Michigan IRBs.
: All authors have approved the manuscript for publication.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.