Received: 27 November 2019
Accepted: 14 February 2020
First Online: 2 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Figure InternalRef removed was produced using human tissue obtained from the Edinburgh MRC Sudden death Brain Bank. The use of human tissue for post-mortem studies has been reviewed and approved by the Edinburgh Brain Bank ethics committee and the ACCORD medical research ethics committee (approval number 15-HV-016; ACCORD is the Academic and Clinical Central Office for Research and Development, a joint office of the University of Edinburgh and NHS Lothian). The Edinburgh Brain Bank is a Medical Research Council-funded facility with research ethics committee (REC) approval (11/ES/0022).
: Not applicable
: Anthony Caggiano, Nicholas Izzo, and Susan Catalano are employees or have financial interest in Cognition Therapeutics, Inc. Henrik Zetterberg has served at scientific advisory boards for Cognition Therapeutics, Roche Diagnostics, Wave and Samumed; has given lectures in symposia sponsored by Biogen and Alzecure; and is a co-founder of Brain Biomarker Solutions in Gothenburg AB, a GU Ventures-based platform company at the University of Gothenburg. Tara Spires-Jones is a scientific advisory board member of Cognition Therapeutics and receives collaborative grant funding from two pharmaceutical companies. John Harrison has received consultancy payments and honoraria from the following organizations in the past 2 years: 23andMe, Alzecure, Aptinyx, Athira Pharma, Axon Neuroscience, Axovant, Biogen, Boehringer Ingelheim, CRF Bracket, Cognition Therapeutics, Compass Therapeutics, Curasen, DeNDRoN, EIP Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, GfHEu, Heptares, Johnson & Johnson, Lundbeck, Lysosome Therapeutics, Merck, Neurodyn, Neurotrack, Novartis, Nutricia, Probiodrug, Regeneron, Rodin Therapeutics, Roivant, Sanofi, Takeda, vTv Therapeutics, and Winterlight Labs. Kaj Blennow has served as a consultant or at advisory boards for Alector, Biogen, Cognition Therapeutics, Lilly, MagQu, Novartis, and Roche Diagnostics and is a co-founder of Brain Biomarker Solutions in Gothenburg AB, a GU Ventures-based platform company at the University of Gothenburg. Christopher van Dyck has served as a consultant or scientific advisor in the past 2 years for Roche, Eisai, and Kyowa Kirin and received grant support for clinical trials from Roche, Genentech, Eisai, Biogen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Merck, Biohaven, and Janssen. Lon Schneider reports grants and personal fees from Eli Lilly, personal fees from Avraham, Ltd., personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from Merck, personal fees from Neurim, Ltd., personal fees from Neuronix, Ltd., personal fees from Cognition Therapeutics, personal fees from Eisai, personal fees from Takeda, personal fees from vTv, grants and personal fees from Roche/Genentech, grants from Biogen, grants from Novartis, personal fees from Abbott, and grants from Biohaven, outside the submitted work. Philip Scheltens reports consultancies with Axon Neuroscience, Cognition Therapeutics, Vivoryon, and Novartis, as well as a DSMB membership with Genentech. Michael Grundman is a paid consultant to Cognition Therapeutics. Howard Fillit has been a consultant to Axovant, vTv, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Lilly, Biogen (RTI), Roche, Genentech, Merck, Samus, Pfizer, and Alector in the past 5 years and has no conflicts that are related to this manuscript. Steven T. DeKosky is a member of the Neuroscience Advisory Board for Amgen, Chair of the Medical Scientific Advisory Board for Acumen, Chair of the Drug Monitoring Committee for Biogen, Chair of the Medical Advisory Board for Cognition Therapeutics, and Editor for Dementia for UpToDate. Martí Colom Cadena and Willem de haan declare that they have no competing interests.