Funding for this research was provided by:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (81872708, 82073668)
Received: 12 August 2021
Accepted: 20 October 2021
First Online: 3 November 2021
: Ethical approval for all the CHARLS waves was granted from the Institutional Review Board at Peking University. The IRB approval number for the main household survey, including anthropometrics, is IRB00001052-11015.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.