Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Mental Health (R21MH107045, R01MH105506, R01MH115363)
NIH Clinical Center (MH099059)
Ontario Brain Institute (IDS-I 1-02)
Slifka-Ritvo Award for Innovation in Autism Research from the International Society for Autism Research
Alan B. Slifka Foundation
Academic Scholars Award from the Department of Psychiatry
O’Brien Scholars Program in the Child and Youth Mental Health Collaborative at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Hospital for Sick Children
Slaight Family Child and Youth Mental Health Innovation Fund from Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Foundation
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (GSB 171373)
Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (115300, 777394)
Phyllis Green, Randolph Cowen, and Joseph Healey
Received: 8 September 2020
Accepted: 18 January 2021
First Online: 1 March 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: ABIDE I and II: All contributions were based on studies approved by the local Institutional Review Boards, and data were deidentified (removing all 18 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA)-protected health information identifiers, and face information from structural images). EU-AIMS LEAP: Ethical approval was obtained through ethics committees at each site. GENDAAR: Informed assent and consent were obtained from all participants and their legal guardians, and the experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board at each participating site.
: Not applicable.
: ADM receives royalties from the publication of the Italian version of the Social Responsiveness Scale—Child Version by Organization Speciali, Italy. JKB has been a consultant to, advisory board member of, and a speaker for Takeda/Shire, Medice, Roche, and Servier. He is not an employee of any of these companies and not a stock shareholder of any of these companies. He has no other financial or material support, including expert testimony, patents, or royalties. CFB is director and shareholder in SBGneuro Ltd. TC has received consultancy from Roche and Servier and received book royalties from Guildford Press and Sage. DM has been a consultant to, and advisory board member, for Roche and Servier. He is not an employee of any of these companies, and not a stock shareholder of any of these companies. TB served in an advisory or consultancy role for Lundbeck, Medice, Neurim Pharmaceuticals, Oberberg GmbH, Shire, and Infectopharm. He received conference support or speaker’s fee by Lilly, Medice, and Shire. He received royalties from Hogrefe, Kohlhammer, CIP Medien, Oxford University Press; the present work is unrelated to these relationships. JT is a consultant to Roche. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.