Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (T32-GM007347)
National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH113576)
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (F30-DC019510)
Nancy Lurie Marks Family Foundation
Received: 3 June 2021
Accepted: 31 July 2021
First Online: 10 August 2021
: All participants gave informed consent for participation in the study. All procedures in the SPARK sample were approved by the institutional review board at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and the Human Penguin Project was approved under an “umbrella” ethics proposal at Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, and separately at each contributing site. All study procedures complied with the ethics code outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki.
: Not applicable.
: ZJW serves as a family partner of the Autism Speaks Autism Care Network Vanderbilt site and a member of the autistic researcher review board of the Autism Intervention Network for Physical Health (AIR-P). ZJW also serves as a consultant to Roche. KOG has no competing interests.