Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (5R01AR071316-04)
Received: 4 May 2020
Revised: 11 August 2020
Accepted: 26 August 2020
First Online: 7 September 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Procedure for human cell isolation followed the Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocols at Columbia University: (1) IRB-AAAC1289 Pre-cursor cells in exfoliating human deciduous teeth, (2) IRB-AAAO8354 Engineering cementum on human extracted tooth, and (3) IRB-AAAS9208 Isolation of PDL stem cells and gingival fibroblasts for in vitro periodontal tissue formation on dental implants. Informed consents with written documentation were obtained from all the participants. The collected tissue samples, with no disclosure of patient information, were transferred to the laboratory for cell isolation.
: Not applicable
: Authors have no competing interests related to the present study.