Received: 13 August 2019
Accepted: 30 January 2020
First Online: 21 February 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The New Zealand Animal Welfare Act (1999) states that if an animal is subject to a manipulation, it needs ethics approval.Section three of this act defines a manipulation as follows:In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, the term manipulation, in relation to an animal, means, subject to subsections (1A) to (3), interfering with the normal physiological, behavioural, or anatomical integrity of the animal by deliberately—(a) subjecting it to a procedure which is unusual or abnormal when compared with that to which animals of that type would be subjected under normal management or practice and which involves—(i) exposing the animal to any parasite, micro-organism, drug, chemical, biological product, radiation, electrical stimulation, or environmental condition; or(ii) enforced activity, restraint, nutrition, or surgical intervention; or(b) depriving the animal of usual care;—As washing of feet to observe BDD is normal management and the animals were observed during milking (so there is no restraint beyond normal) what was done does not meet the definition of a manipulation.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.