Funding for this research was provided by:
Research Funds of Zhongshan Hospital (XYYX201922, 2018ZSQN53, 2019ZSYXQN34, 2019ZSQN13)
Research Fund of Shanghai Municipal Health Commission (2019ZB0105)
Received: 27 November 2019
Accepted: 26 June 2020
First Online: 8 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The PANDA (Comparison of the Proximal and Distal Approaches of Axillary Vein Catheterization Under Ultrasound Guidance) trial was a single-center prospective randomized controlled trial. The protocol of the PANDA study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China, IRB No. B2017-140) and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03395691). Written informed consent was obtained from legal representatives in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.