Funding for this research was provided by:
Direction de l’hospitalisation et de l’offre de Soins (PHRC 2011)
Received: 30 September 2020
Accepted: 18 December 2020
First Online: 11 February 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: An independent Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée 5) and the Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé approved the protocol and the amendments.
: Not applicable.
: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. The following conflicts of interest are outside the area of the article. Dr Papazian reports receiving lecture fees from Hamilton. Dr Jaber reports receiving consulting fees from Dräger, Fisher-Paykel, Xenios-Fresenius Medical and Medtronic. Dr Aissaoui reports receiving lecture fees from Astra-Zeneca and Thoratec. Dr Lu reports receiving lectures fees from Aerogen. Dr Chastre reports receiving lecture and consulting fees from Bayer Healthcare, Pfizer, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Aridis, the Medicines Company, Astra Zeneca, Tigenix, Accelerate Diagnotics, Inotrem and Glaxo Smith Kline. Dr Luyt reports receiving lecture fees from ThermoFisher Brahms, Biomérieux, Merck Sharp & Dohme and Aerogen, and consulting fees from Bayer Healthcare, Carmat and Faron. Dr Leone reports receiving fees for lectures from MSD, Pfizer, Octapharma, 3M, Biomérieux and for consulting from Amomed, Aguettant and Gilead. Dr Chastre has received honoraria for lectures, or for participating in advisory boards, from Accelerate Diagnostics, AstraZeneca/Medimmune, Bayer, Cubist/Merck, GSK, Inotrem, Kenta/Aridis, Shionogi and Tigenix.