Funding for this research was provided by:
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/J020052/1, NERC-BGS COMET, NERC-BGS COMET, Impact Acceleration Account (University of Bristol))
The Leverhulme Trust (Early Career Fellowship)
European Space Agency (Early Career Living Planet Fellowship)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX12AO31G, NNX12AM24G)
Smithsonian Institution (Postdoctoral fellowship from Global Volcanism Program)
Deep Carbon Observatory
Received: 4 August 2017
Accepted: 9 January 2018
First Online: 6 February 2018
: Not applicable.
: None of the authors have financial or non-financial competing interests in this manuscript.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.