Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 12 July 2020
Accepted: 1 November 2020
First Online: 14 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Local ethics approval is not required for this study. The authors of eligible studies will be asked to provide ethics-approved de-identified data as an encrypted file.
: Consent for publication is not required for this study. The authors of eligible studies will confirm that consent was obtained in the primary study as per local ethics requirements.
: PIPRA AG will develop a commercial presurgical risk assessment tool based on the findings of this meta-analysis. BS and LM received funding from PIPRA AG for conducting this systematic review and IPD meta-analysis. BS is a member of GRADE Working Group. NG has received consultancy fees from PIPRA AG. NS and BTD are founders, shareholders, and employees of PIPRA AG.