Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (UG1-DA-049467, R01 DA051464, R01DA04171)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K23 AA024503)
U.S. National Library of Medicine (R01-LM-010090, R01-LM-012973)
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (K12-HS-026385)
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1-TR-002398)
Received: 3 November 2020
Accepted: 10 March 2021
First Online: 17 March 2021
: The study was approved by the Rush University Chicago Institutional Review Board.
: Need for patient consent was waived by the IRB and deemed unnecessary according to national regulations. However, the minimal data underlying the results of this study are only available upon request due to ethical and legal restrictions imposed by the Rush University Chicago Institutional Review Board. The data derives from the institution’s electronic health record (EHR) and contains patients’ protected health information (PHI). Data are available from Rush University Chicago for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data and have a data usage agreement with the health system.
: The authors declare they have no competing interests.