Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (UG1DA040314, K23DA044324, 5 UG1 DA013714-18, UG1DA013720, UG1DA040316, 5 UG1 DA049436-03, U10 DA013714)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K01AA023859)
Received: 7 January 2021
Accepted: 9 June 2021
First Online: 7 July 2021
: The study was approved by the Kaiser Permanente Washington Institutional Review Board (IRB), and other sites ceded to the Kaiser Permanente Washington IRB.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Yarborough has received support through her institution from Syneos Health to conduct FDA-mandated post-marketing research on the risks of opioid analgesic use. Dr. Schwartz has served as a consultant to Verily Life Sciences.