Funding for this research was provided by:
Health Foundation (Improvement Science Fellowship)
UCLH Biomedical Research Centre
National Institute for Health Research (Academic Clinical Fellowship)
Received: 20 September 2021
Accepted: 22 June 2022
First Online: 29 August 2022
: No ethical approval was sought for this study, but it has been prospectively registered with PROSPERO, an international database of prospectively registered reviews (CRD42018092993).
: Not applicable.
: SRM is Chief Investigator of the Perioperative Quality Improvement Programme (PQIP) and a member of the project team for the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA). SRM and CV-P receive funding from the Royal College of Anaesthetists for their roles as Director (SRM) and Social Scientist (CV-P) of the Health Services Research Centre which runs NELA and funds PQIP. DW, SW and GS are PQIP Fellows at the HSRC. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.