Funding for this research was provided by:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (31330005, 81401141)
Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (14YF1402200)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2018-03-21
Received: 7 November 2017
Accepted: 13 March 2018
First Online: 21 March 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The animal calorie restriction experiment was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China (No. 2014005). The gut microbiota transplantation experiment was done with the approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.