Funding for this research was provided by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (CRC 1182)
Received: 8 February 2019
Accepted: 23 August 2019
First Online: 14 September 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Human samplesStudy participants were randomly recruited from inhabitants of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) who were recruited for the PopGen cohort. Five individuals from the PopGen biobank (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) were randomly selected among the healthy and unmedicated individuals and included in the study without corresponding meta-information. Study participants collected fecal samples at home without conservation buffers in standard fecal tubes (sterile feces container 76 × 20 mm, Sarstedt) and shipped them immediately at room temperature or brought them to the collection center (within 24 h). Samples were stored at − 80 °C until processing. Human feces (<i>N</i> = 4) were sampled and extracted following the procedures as described in Wang et al. 2016 [CitationRef removed]. A biopsy sample of the sigmoid colon was taken from a healthy control individual without macro- or microscopical inflammation (<i>N</i> = 1) and DNA was extracted as described in Rausch et al. [CitationRef removed]. Investigators were blinded to sample identities and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants before the study. All protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of Kiel and by the data protection officer of the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein in adherence with the Declaration of Helsinki Principles.Animal and plant samplesWild-derived, hybrid mice were sacrificed according to the German animal welfare law and Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations guidelines. Hybrid breeding stocks of wild-derived <i>M. m. musculus</i> × <i>M. m. domesticus</i> hybrids captured in 2008 are kept at the Max Planck Institute Plön (11th lab generation). The approval for mouse husbandry and experiment was obtained from the local veterinary office “Veterinäramt Kreis Plön” (Permit: 1401-144/PLÖ-004697). All samplings, including invertebrate and plant samples, were performed in concordance with the German animal welfare law and Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations guidelines. Further details for each host type are provided in Additional file InternalRef removed.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.