Funding for this research was provided by:
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/H019456/1)
Received: 19 September 2019
Accepted: 20 February 2020
First Online: 2 April 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by either local research ethics committee (UK) or institutional review board (USA) as follows, with participating centre(s) then committee/board and approval number in parentheses: Bedford, and Lebanon, NH, USA (Geisel School of Medicine and Dartmouth College Institutional Review Board, CPHS # 23809); Belfast (Northern Ireland), Dublin (Ireland), Warsaw (Poland), London (UK) (Office for Research Ethics Northern Ireland, 06/NIR01/11); Boston, MA, USA (Massachusetts General Hospital Institutional Review Board, 2011P000620); Burlington, VT, USA (University of Vermont Institutional Review Board, M13-160); New York, NY, USA (Columbia University Institutional Review Board, IRB#AAAE8112); Newcastle, UK (County Durham and Tees Valley Research Ethics Committee, Res-11/NE/0291); Portland, ME, USA (Maine Medical Center Institutional Review Board, IRB # 4170); Seattle, WA, USA (Seattle Children’s Hospital Institutional Review Board, IRB #12811) and Southampton, UK (Southampton and South West Hampshire Research Ethics Committee, 06/Q1704/26).
: SMM is now an employee of Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and may hold stock and/or stock options in that company. JP has a paid consultancy with Next Gen Diagnostics LLC. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.